Noviembre 2016
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There are different doctors who treat diverse diseases and disorders, according to their specialties. They specialize in one field and carry on their service in the same. Nowadays, since there are newer diseases health conditions being discovered, doctors are required to update their knowledge with the ever-changing methods of treatment. Those treating physical issues might have to work with doctors dealing with mental problems to treat certain patients. This article lists the most commonly found specialists in the field of medicine.


These doctors specialize in the prevention and intervention of mental, emotional, or behavioral diseases, and prescribe suitable medicines for various conditions, from depression to schizophrenia. They also undertake psychotherapy, behavioral therapy, and psychoanalysis. They check if the mental sickness is because of stress or physical conditions like a tumor in the brain. They conduct a detailed study of emotional problems and assist the patient to treat and cure it.


They are medical professionals who treat various kidney disorders, and deal with people who are adverted to them by specialists in internal medicine, when severe kidney disorders are diagnosed. They treat disorders by using medicines, or by removing waste and harmful toxins from the body with specialized medical equipment. If there is a need for a surgery wherein the kidney needs to be replaced or removed, nephrologists initiate the operation. They carry out kidney biopsies which are useful in the diagnosis of several kidney diseases. Nephrologists are soundly established in general medicine too, with a specific concentration in physiological procedures carried out by kidneys. Some are even well versed in biochemistry and the instruments of modern biochemical analysis. A good nephrologist is conversant with the latest computerized diagnostic equipment and kidney dialysis machines.


When one has vision-related issues, the first step taken is to approach an optometrist who is an expert in the field of eye disorders. Optometrists perform thorough testing of the eye and the visual system, determine the nature of problems, and suggest and prescribe appropriate treatment methods. If any pathologic condition is diagnosed after the analysis, they instantly suggest the patient to visit an ophthalmologist for further medical treatments or surgery. These medical professionals even specialize in contact lenses or treating vision problems in children and the elderly. An optometrist helps patients choose aids for their eyes and makes sure about a good fit and comfort. He is supposed to take up continuing education to get to know technological advancements in the field of human eyesight.


The doctors who specialize in the treatment of skin diseases and disorders like acne, psoriasis, and skin cancer are known as dermatologists. They have a deep understanding about various skin diseases which may affect other parts of the body. Nowadays, many skin complications and allergies are coming into existence, which are being treated and cured by dermatologists. As a result, there are many sub-specialties being opted for by dermatologists; such as cosmetic dermatology, immunodermatology, teledermatology, mohs surgery, and dermatopathology, just to name a few. Today, due to the popularity of laser skin surgery, cosmetic dermatology has become one of the top earning professions.


They are adept in the study of the nervous system which covers the brain, 'medulla spinalis', and complicated working of the nerve network. They have an expertise in diagnosing and treating various nervous system diseases. As infections and disorders in any part of the body may lead to severe nervous system complications, neurologists must be well aware of the total functioning of the human body. Common issues handled by neurologists are frequent headaches, stroke, seizures, and sleep disorders. They also address problems related to reflexes, memory, sense of touch, speech, and movement.


This doctor specializes in treatment and cure of all oral complications such as teeth, mouth, and jaw problems. Many people choose a dentist with a general practice for routine checkups, but may need to approach a dentist who is proficient in treating complicated oral disorders in case of problems which may need specialized treatment. Prosthodontists are responsible for straightening of teeth, curing gum problems, carrying out root canal procedures, tooth extraction, and other complicated procedures. Nowadays, cosmetic dentistry is attracting a substantial demand, owing to the desire of people to have an attractive smile. Dentistry is definitely one of the rewarding career platforms in terms of income prospects.


Since the diseases, disorders, and treatments of infants is different from those affecting grown-ups, child care demands a totally different approach. A pediatrician is a doctor who is adept in treating health issues in children. He has to be very careful when diagnosing complications and treating children, especially babies. A pediatrician also has to deal with genetic disorders which may affect the child in future. During counseling or treatment, the doctor has to handle the mental state of the child as well. They are responsible for treating a wide range of developmental and anxiety issues. These medical personnel might have to work with other doctors for assistance in treatment.


Cardiologists are among the most highly paid doctors. A cardiologist is a medical expert who is proficient in finding, treating, and preventing complication in the heart. He heavily relies on the medical history of patients before diagnosis, since most issues can be diagnosed by studying previous medical records. He has to study each case carefully, as the condition is different in every patient. Owing to prevention of further heart problems, he may suggest certain changes in lifestyle. If he is unable to treat the problem using medication and his procedures, he might refer to the case to a cardiovascular surgeon who performs surgeries. A cardiologist can even opt for pediatric cardiology as a specialization.


The services of an obstetrician or gynecologist are required when there are complications in pregnancy. Due to the demand, a career in obstetrics is probably considered to be competitive among other medical jobs. A majority of obstetricians are also trained in gynecology, thus referred to as OB/GYNs. These medical professionals look after all aspects of childbirth in prenatal and postnatal periods. They also counsel and treat women who have problems in the reproductive system. Almost all OB/GYNs say that their job is very satisfying as they help pregnant women deal with difficult issues. Their role can be summed as delivering babies safely and maintaining the mother's health.


Since most doctors work with humans, a veterinarian, also referred to as a vet, diagnoses and treats health issues of animals. These personnel can either choose surgery, dermatology, or medicine as a career specialty. Nevertheless, there are many other specialties such as anesthesiology, animal behavior, internal medicine, nutrition, and surgery. A vet performs pet care tasks; out of which a few are vaccination, wound dressing, treating fractures, dental treatments, and so on. He may have to treat either pets, wild animals in zoos, or cattle and livestock. Vets completely depend on the medical reports of the tests conducted, since animals cannot communicate their present condition.


Anesthesiologists are skillful doctors who are responsible for administering anesthesia to the patient prior to a surgery. Anesthesiologists are believed to be the highest paid in the medical industry. Since it is crucial that the patient is provided with the right dose of anesthesia, these experts have to take additional care. They have to keep a track of the patient's vital signs when the surgery is in process. After the surgery is successfully complete, they have to administer medications to help the patient regain consciousness. Apart from surgery-based anesthetics, they even treat patients with severe pain.


Due to an increase in people eating junk food and having an irregular lifestyle, there is a rise in tg=he number of cases related to the digestive system. This is the main reason why the services of gastroenterologists are in demand. These doctors are required to diagnose and treat disorders related to the digestive system. They are also proficient in the study of nutrition, which can be used to inform patient regarding a healthy diet. They conduct certain medical examinations which can be used to diagnose serious complications such as ulcers, colon cancer, heartburn, etc.


Another specialty in the profession of physicians is urology. A urologist examines and treats disorders associated with the urinary tract. As urinary tract issues can also have a direct effect on the reproductive system, a urologist is also trained in treating disorders of reproductive system of males. There are several sub-specialties in this career as well; such as laparoscopy, reconstructive urology, urogynecology, neurourology, and similar others. He is also trained in other fields such as pediatrics, medicine, and gynecology. He has to refer to reports generated by performing various tests using fluoroscopes, catheters, X-rays, body scans, etc.


By Barbara Goldberg


STONY BROOK, N.Y. Just weeks after a surgical team on New York's Long Island began a series of operations to rebuild both lips of an 8-year-old boy mauled by chimpanzees in Africa, the sound of success filled a play room at Stony Brook Children's Hospital.

"Slurp!" was heard as Dunia Sibomana sipped a spoonful of chicken broth through his newly created lips. The surgery has already helped him keep food inside his mouth, speak more clearly and stop constant drooling, said lead surgeon Dr. Alexander Dagum, the hospital's chief of plastic and reconstructive surgery.

Two years ago, Sibomana was playing with children in his native Democratic Republic of Congo when chimpanzees attacked, ripping off his lips and killing his younger brother.

The rare double-lip reconstruction requires several surgeries over the course of about nine months, and the first took place on Jan. 11.

Complications arose during the surgery, which was expected to last eight hours but stretched to 14, as Dagum harvested a rectangle of skin, nerve, tendon and vein from the child's forearm and used it to form the circle of both lips.

It turned out the vein was too short to reach a crucial blood supply in the neck so Dagum scrambled to collect a second vein from the boy's upper arm to make the connection.

Racing against the clock to keep the transferred tissue alive by surgically restoring the blood supply, Dagum looked through a microscope and sewed vein to vein and nerve to nerve.

In the end, Dagum said he was surprised by the extent Sibomana is now able to move his lips, which will improve further as swelling subsides. A subsequent surgery this summer also is meant to enhance the movement and look of the lips.

"We're really happy. We got more than we expected," Dagum said.

After surgery, Sibomana remained sedated for a week as the healing began. His hospital room is filled with stuffed animals and balloons and manned 24 hours each day by volunteers from Smile Rescue Fund for Kids, the charity that paid for his travel to the hospital, which donated the medical treatment.

He woke surrounded by the American family he has been living with - Jennifer Crean and her three children Collin, 16, Eian, 12, and Grace, 10, of the Long Island hamlet of Hauppauge.

Enough donations have poured into to allow Sibomana to attend boarding school back in Africa, which costs less than $700 a year, said charity founder Leon Klempner, a retired Stony Brook dentist.

"Home - I need home! Ziggy!" said Sibomana, a native Swahili speaker who is picking up English, calling out the name of the Crean family dog as he waited to be discharged from the hospital last week.

It will be another week before Sibomana is allowed to play outside, Dagum said, but by then the snow from the blizzard that crippled the U.S. Northeast on Jan. 23 may have melted away.

But hospital food director Michael West, who witnessed Sibomana's excitement over seeing snow for the first time, said he made sure the boy would not miss the fun of building snowmen or having a snowball fight. As the blizzard raged on, West said, he brought a bucket of the white stuff into Sibomana's hospital room.

"I was soaking wet - he has a pretty good arm on him and he has good aim," West said.

(Editing by Frank McGurty, Bernard Orr)
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While the building housing Dr. Ron Henderson's cosmetic

dentistry practice may date back to the days of Abraham Lincoln. his

philosophy on care and the technology he uses are anchored in the 21st


A practicing dentist in Dover since 1972, Henderson opened Healthy

Smiles 18 years ago. He keeps smiles bright and mouths healthy in part

through the use of state-of-the-art CEREC technology, which allows him

to restore teeth, replace crowns and place veneers in a single visit.

CEREC is an acronym for "chairside,"

"economical," "restorations," "esthetics"

and "ceramic." The use of CEREC's CAD/CAM technology

allows a trained dentist to design, create and place restorative dental

work without the need for outside labs and extended waiting periods.

While CEREC technology has existed for 20 years and is becoming

more common among New Hampshire dentists, Henderson is' one of only

5,000 users in the country.

Recently Henderson, 61, left behind all technology to take part in

a weeklong medical mission to Peru, where he extended care and delivered

toothbrushes and toothpaste to residents of the Andes mountains.

Q. Where did your interest in dentistry come from?

A. My dentist became my mentor when I was growing up. He took an

interest in me and made a pretty big impact on me because he was also

the state chairman of the Miss Indiana pageant--at 16, that's quite

a thing.

Q. What are the biggest changes you've observed since your

early years as a dentist?

A. The biggest impact has come from changes in technology.

It's everywhere, from computers and billing in the front office to

the way we provide care.

As far as care goes, there are really two things--the intra-oral

camera, which allows us to put images of our patients' mouths on a

screen so. our patients can really see and understand what we're

talking about. When they see it, they tend to take it more seriously.

The other is this CEREC technology. That's really high-tech.

It allows us to do conservative dentistry, to be proactive. We can take

care of problems before they become really big problems. And we can do

it in a much more proficient manner.

Q. Why is CEREC technology so revolutionary?

A. This technology allows us to perform more conservative dentistry

in a more efficient manner. Take the need for a crown, for example.

Traditionally, patients would come in for an hour and a half, we'd

take an impression, fit them with a temporary for two weeks, send the

impression to a lab across the country. Then they'd have to come in

for a second visit, when we'd replace the temporary with the

permanent crown. It was cumbersome and uncomfortable.

Now it's done by computer right in the office in one visit. We

take a picture, the computer calculates the correct fit, that

information is sent to the milling machine, which creates the crown or

onlay in a matter of minutes. It's very fluid and works really


Q. Why aren't more dentists using the technology?

A. You'd think more people would be using it. First is cost.

You're looking at a financial investment of about $100,000 for the

technology. The second is the time. There is an extremely steep learning

curve. I've been to numerous trainings in Detroit, New Jersey,

Portland, Maine--all over. It takes a lot of time and energy to become

proficient at using this technology.

Q. How has it been received by patients?

A. We have so many patients who just say "wow." Patients

want to get in and get out as quickly as possible. This technology helps

them do that. They're very pleased with it.

Q. What about cost to patients?

A. It's no more expensive. Even though the initial investment

in the technology is very expensive, it balances out. There are no lab

costs, and there's only one visit. Everybody benefits from it.

Q. You opted early in your career to focus on cosmetic dentistry as

opposed to general dentistry--why?

A. My patients were asking for it. It's a lot more fun.

General dentistry can get boring after a while. I like to look for ways

I can improve. This new technology keeps me energized, keeps me


Q. We're living in a society where cosmetic procedures of all

kinds are becoming more commonplace. Many believe the industry has

gotten out of hand--where do you see cosmetic dentistry falling here?

A. I think there are different ways to look at it. It's always

nice to be able to enhance yourself. Our smile is so important--studies

show our smiles are the first thing people look at. A nice smile

dazzles. How can you fault someone who wants to enhance theirs? Today

we're able to restore someone's smile to what it was when they

were 18 or 20. Why not do it?

Q. What service did you provide while on the medical mission to


A. These people live in the Andes--we were at 10,000 feet.

They're below Third World level. They're very isolated and

have tremendous health problems. You'd ask 'which tooth

hurts?' and they'd point to four or five different areas. It

was suggested to us that we only work on one problem per patient because

there were so many who needed our help. We had to triage their

complaints. We'd have to take care of the biggest problem;

sometimes we would try to address two or three things. They were so

grateful for the care.

People in this community were so supportive. They donated a massive

amount of toothbrushes and toothpaste for me to bring.

Q. What kind of impact did this trip have on you?

A. We're pathetically abundant here. People are always

complaining about what they don't have, and we take so much for

granted. The trip really re-emphasized how lucky we are.

Q. Will you be making more trips?

A. I'd like to. Butt next time I'd like to go somewhere

that didn't require as much travel. Of the. eight days, I was only

able to do dentistry for three. The other five days we were traveling,

gathering supplies or setting up our operation. I will go on another

mission. There are so many places that need our help. I'd like to

go somewhere where we can spend a solid five days or more doing what we

made the trip to do.


Abstract: The current study aims at determining the accuracy of

finite element analysis investigations, in the field of dental implants,

by comparing their results to the corresponding physical tests. Two of

the most representative implant systems on the market were selected for

the comparison. The chosen implants are made of Grade 4, respectively

Grade 5 titanium. The FEA results differ from the physical testing

results for one of the systems, and partially match the other.

Key words: fatigue, dental, implant, FEA, comparison


Dental implant design does not have a specific set of rules (Duse

& Pasa, 2010). Since the calculation capabilities improved, the

finite element method has been introduced in the design process, in

order to optimize the implant's geometry and material. In the last

years researchers tried to develop some dental implants design guide

lines using FEA (Ao et al., 2010), (Baggi et al., 2008), (Hansson &

Werke, 2003), (Kong et al., 2009). In order to determine the

accurateness of the finite element method results, we acquired finite

element analysis, made according to ISO 14801:2007, for two dental

implant systems, with replica abutments and screws. The reported values

were checked by physical testing, according to the same standard.


For the tests, both FEA and physical, the replica abutments and

abutment fixing screws, came from the same manufacturer. These parts are

made from the same material as the original systems' ones: Ti

Grade5. The FEA testing reports, made according to ISO 14801:2007, were

considered the input data and starting point for the physical tests. The

implant systems used in the study are presented in Fig. 1. They will be

further named System A and System B.


The installations used for the testing are: Hounsfield H10KT, for

the static testing, and Instron 8872, for the fatigue testing. The

tests' loading setup can be observed in Fig. 2. The tested parts

are identical to the FEA models and their specifications are presented

in Tab. 1.

The measurements which insured the correct mounting of the implants

and abutments were made with a calliper, with a measuring error of

0,01mm, according to DIN 862 (Fig. 3). The testing environment

temperature was 22[degrees]C.

The loading members, specimen holder and loading device are made of

steel with an elastic modulus of 200GPa. The loading members were

press-fitted onto the abutments.

The first step of the tests was to determine the static breaking

load of the systems, by applying a displacement of 1mm/min to the

loading device until the tested specimen broke, according to SR EN ISO

6892-2010 and ISO 14801:2007. Next, the implants were subjected to

fatigue testing, as advised by the ISO 14801:2007 standard, using the

FEA results as guidelines, until the fatigue limit for each of them was

confirmed--3 specimens endured the fatigue limit load for 5 mil. cycles.

The fatigue testing frequency was 15Hz.




3.1 Static tests results

The static tests results are presented in Tab. 2.


The System A implants came from two different batches. The

mechanical resistance of the two greatly differed, as it can be seen in

Fig. 6. The fatigue limit physically determined is 240N and does not

match the FEA result of 332N.


The System B implants came from three different batches. All three

batches proved similar mechanical resistance, as it can be seen in Fig.

7. The FEA fatigue limit of 337N was confirmed by the physical testing.



During the tests, the implant bodies were the ones that broke,

either at the specimen holder level, or at the implant collar

level--Fig. 8 (abutments remained intact). This behaviour of the tested

samples matches the FEA investigations results.


From the location of the high stressed areas point of view, the

FEAs were mostly consistent with the physical tests. However, from the

load and stress values point of view, the FEAs were mostly inconsistent

with the physical tests results (Tab. 3). Based on the authors'

experience in the field of engineering, a few factors that might

determine such differences in the output data are listed below:

1. Regarding the developer: not enough specifications in the

part/assembly drawings;

2. Regarding the manufacturer: fluctuations of the implant's

manufacturing process; flaws in the quality management system;

3. Regarding the FEA engineer: incorrect representation of the real

world event; insufficient mesh density to properly capture the solution;

the usage of too high compensation energies;

4. Regarding the physical testing technician: testing samples

mishandling; not respecting the manufacturer's abutment mounting

specifications; testing parameters/equipment not in compliance with the

testing standards requirements.

Based on the current results, we conclude that FEA is an

approximating analysis tool and that its results should be double

checked by physical testing, before being implemented into production.

One partial conclusion that could also be drawn, based on the

current tests results (Tab. 3), is that the fatigue limit load is about

50% of the static breaking load, for screw shaped rigid assembly implant

systems, made of Grade4 and Grade5 titanium, tested according to ISO

1480:2007. Further investigations are necessary on other implant

systems, in order to generalize this result.


We would like to thank NT-Trading GmbH for their support, funding

and materials, without which these tests would not have been possible.

Research developed within the POSDRU/6/1.5/S/26 project,

co-financed by The Development of Human Resources Sectorial Operational

Program 2007-2013, from the European Social Fund.

Tests developed within the Lucian Blaga University, Sibiu, Romania

PhD. programs, at the INCDMTM institute, Bucharest, Romania.


Ao, J.; Li, T.; Liu, Y.; Ding, Y.; Wu, G.; Hua, K. & Kong, K.

(2010). Optimal design of thread height and width on an immediately

loaded cylinder implant: A finite element analysis. Computers in Biology

and Medicine, Vol. 40, No. 8, (August 2010) pp. 681-686, ISSN: 0010-4825

Baggi, L.; Cappelloni, I; Di Girolamo, M.; Maceri, F. & Vairo,

G. (2008). The influence of implant diameter and length on stress

distribution of osseointegrated implants related to crestal bone

geometry: A three-dimensional finite element analysis. The Journal of

Prosthetic Dentistry, Vol. 100, No. 6, (December 2008) pp. 422-431,

ISSN: 0022-3913

Hansson, S. & Werke, M. (2003). The implant thread as a

retention element in cortical bone: the effect of thread size and thread

profile: a finite element study. Journal of Biomechanies, Vol. 36, No.

9, (September 2003) pp. 1247-1258, ISSN: 0021-9290

Duse, DM. & Pasa, A. (2010), Screw shaped dental implants

analysis tool. Academic Journal of Manufacturing Engineering, Vol.8, No.

2, (April 2010) pp. 32-38, ISSN: 1583-7904

Kong, L.; Zhao, Y.; Hua, K.; Li, D.; Zhou, H.; Wue, Z. & Liu,

B. (2009). Selection of the implant thread pitch for optimal

biomechanical properties: A three-dimensional finite element analysis.

Advances in Engineering Software, Vol. 40, No. 7, (July 2009) pp.

474-478, ISSN: 0965-9978

Tab. 1. Tested samples specifications


Implant Implant screw

Implant Implant diameter length Abutment torque

System material [mm] [mm] material [Ncm]

System A Ti 3,5 13 Ti Grades 35

Grade4 CP


System B Ti 3,7 13 Ti 30

Grade5 Grade5


Tab. 2. Static results--FEA vs. Physical

System System System


FEA static

load to failure 534N 613N

Physical static

load to failure 492.5N 675N

Tab. 3. Analyses results comparison

Tested FEA Physical FEA

Implant max. max. fatigue

system static static limit

load load load

[N] [N] [N]

System A 534 492.5 332

System B 613 675 337

[F.sub. [F.sub.

static] static]

Tested Physical

Implant fatigue [F.sub. [F.sub.

system limit load fatigue] fatigue]

FEA physica

[N] % [%]

System A 240 62.17 48.73

System B 337 54.98 49.93


A historian in the U.K. has discovered secret notes hidden in the text of England's first printed bible.

Recent analysis of the Latin Bible, which was published in 1535 by Henry VIII's printer, has revealed fascinating English annotations made during the 16th-century Reformation. The Reformation was a period of immense upheaval in England, which saw the Church of England break away from the authority of the Catholic Church in Rome.

Housed in the library of Lambeth Palace, which is the official London residence of the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Bible is one of just seven surviving copies.

Related: Shakespeare begs for refugees' mercy in his own hand

"We know virtually nothing about this unique Bible - whose preface was written by Henry himself - outside of the surviving copies," said Eyal Poleg, a historian at Queen Mary University of London, in a press release.

Close inspection revealed that heavy paper had been pasted over blank parts of the Bible. "The challenge was how to uncover the annotations without damaging the book," explained Poleg.

The historian brought in Graham Davis, a specialist in 3D x-ray imaging at the university's School of Dentistry. The experts took two images in long exposure. For one image, a light sheet slid beneath the pages was turned on, for another, it was turned off.

Related: Site of 1503 shipwreck tied to Vasco da Gama found off Oman

The first image revealed all the annotations, scrambled with the printed text, while the second picture showed only the printed text. Davis wrote a piece of software to "subtract" the second image from the first, revealing a clear picture of the annotations, which are written in English.

"The annotations are copied from the famous 'Great Bible' of Thomas Cromwell, seen as the epitome of the English Reformation," explained the university, in its press release. "Written between 1539 and 1549, they were covered and disguised with thick paper in 1600."

Poleg said that the annotations support the idea that the Reformation was a gradual process.  "Until recently, it was widely assumed that the Reformation caused a complete break, a Rubicon moment when people stopped being Catholics and accepted Protestantism, rejected saints, and replaced Latin with English," he explained. "This Bible is a unique witness to a time when the conservative Latin and the reformist English were used together, showing that the Reformation was a slow, complex, and gradual process."

Related: Botched castle restoration is deemed a 'heritage massacre'

Poleg's research also uncovered a handwritten transaction between two men on the back page of the book. The transaction states that James Elys Cutpurse of London promised to pay William Cheffyn of Calais 20 shillings, or would go to the notorious Marshalsea prison. Subsequent research conducted by Poleg revealed that Cutpurse was hanged in July 1152.

In medieval English, Cutpurse means 'pickpocket'.

"Beyond Mr Cutpurse's illustrious occupation, the fact that we know when he died is significant," said Poleg. "It allows us to date and trace the journey of the book with remarkable accuracy - the transaction obviously couldn't have taken place after his death."

Follow James Rogers on Twitter @jamesjrogers

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